Clostridium tetani is the organism that leads to the tetanus disease. Clostridia are anaerobic organisms that have over 209 different species and five subspecies.
Although widespread vaccination campaigns have decreased the public health risk, tetanus is a potentially life-threatening disease.
As a result, it is critical to recognize the typical clinical presentation, as well as the immediate treatment of Clostridium tetani infection.
What Is Tetanus?
Tetanus, also known as lockjaw, is a potentially fatal infection caused by Clostridium tetani. This bacterium makes a toxin that impacts the nervous system and brain, causing muscle stiffness and headache.
When Clostridium tetani spores enter a wound, the neurotoxin disrupts nerves that control muscle movement.
The infection can lead to muscle spasms, severe breathing difficulties, and even death. Although tetanus treatment is available, it is not always effective.
How Is Tetanus Spread?
Clostridium tetani spores can be found in a variety of environments, including manure, soil, and dust.
When the spores transform into bacteria when they enter the human body through broken skin, which is usually caused by injuries from contaminated objects.
Tetanus symptoms typically appear seven to 10 days after the initial infection. However, this can take anywhere from four days to three weeks, and in some cases, months.
Tetanus is commonly referred to as “lockjaw” as one of the most frequent symptoms of this infection is the muscles of the jaw becoming tight and spasm.
Tetanus infection can cause life-threatening health problems such as difficulty opening the mouth, breathing, and swallowing.
Spasms and stiffness are two muscle symptoms. The chewing muscles are usually the first to stiffen, hence the name lockjaw.
Chest and neck muscle stiffness can cause breathing difficulties. Abdominal and limb muscles can also be affected in some people.
As the back muscles weaken, the spine will arch backward in severe cases. This is more common in children who have had a tetanus infection.
Other symptoms of tetanus include:
- Sore throat
- Sensitivity to touch
- Rapid heartbeat
If a doctor believes you might have tetanus from a wound but don’t yet have any symptoms, your wound will be thoroughly cleaned before a tetanus immunoglobulin injection is administered.
Tetanus immunoglobulin is a medication that contains antibodies that inhibit the action of the tetanus toxin, thereby halting its effects on the nerves.
It provides immediate, but brief, protection against tetanus.
For tetanus treatment, doctors may prescribe penicillin or metronidazole. These antibiotics inhibit the bacterium’s ability to multiply and produce the neurotoxin that causes muscle spasms and stiffness.
You will most likely need to be admitted to a hospital intensive care unit (ICU), where you may be given a variety of treatments.
This can consist of antibiotics, tetanus immunoglobulin, and muscle stiffness and spasm medication.
Most people who develop tetanus symptoms recover, but it can take weeks or months.
Tetanus can be prevented by receiving tetanus vaccines on a regular basis throughout one’s life.
They are the only way to prevent the illness, and if the infection enters the body through a cut or wound, there is no cure.
If someone has a wound that is unclean and they do not know if or when they received the vaccines, a doctor can give them a tetanus booster while they are being treated for the wound.
Children under the age of seven will receive DTaP (diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis) and diphtheria and tetanus shots from a doctor.
The DTaP vaccine is typically administered in five doses. Doses can be given by a doctor at the age two months, four months, six months, 15–18 months, and four to six years.
To protect the fetus, pregnant women should receive a Tdap booster shot in the third trimester of each pregnancy.
Tdap booster shots should be given to people over the age of 19 every ten years.
Tetanus has become a rare condition due to an increase in vaccines.
The majority of cases now occur in people who have not received the vaccines or in elderly people with weakened immune systems.
Clostridium tetani is a causative organism that creates toxins responsible for tetanus which is a very serious infection, sometimes being fatal.
One of the most notable symptoms of tetanus is that it seizes the muscles in the body, starting off with the jaw which is where tetanus gets its other name ‘lockjaw’.
Fortunately, there are vaccines that will prevent tetanus as long you get them on time and keep up to date with them. Because of this, tetanus has been losing its prevalence over the years.
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